1. Favouritism – the practice of giving unfair preferential treatment to one person or group at the expense of another.
  2. Nepotism – the practice among those with power or influence of favouring relatives or friends, especially by giving them jobs.
  3. Bullying – unwanted, aggressive behaviour that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behaviour is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time.
  4. Forms of Harassment:
  • Psychological harassment – This is humiliating, intimidating or abusive behaviour which is often difficult to detect, leaving no evidence other than victim reports or complaints. Verbal comments.
  • Racial harassment- The targeting of an individual because of their race or ethnicity.
  • Religious harassment – Verbal, psychological or physical harassment is used against targets because they choose to practice a specific religion.
  • Sexual harassment- It involves unwanted and unwelcome words, deeds, actions, gestures, symbols, or behaviours of a sexual nature that make the target feel uncomfortable.
  • Workplace harassment – the offensive, belittling or threatening behaviour directed at an individual worker or a group of workers.
  • Victimization: the action of singling someone out for cruel or unjust treatment e.g. silent treatment. A way of punishing someone.
  • Intimidation: A threat made by a senior person to a less senior person in order to prevent or force them to do or to prevent them from doing something